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This listing originally
appeared in "New York State - The battleground of the Revolutionary War,"
by Hamilton Fish. LL.D. Copyright 1976, Vantage Press
along this page you will see a partial list of New York's Patriot, both
civilian and military, exiles during the Revolutionary War. These American
refugees voluntarily left their homes and properties in New York just before
the British army, under General Howe, captured the city on September 15,
1776. For seven years they lived wherever they could find shelter: in
Newburgh, Fishkill, Poughkeepsie, Kingston, and in the small towns of Westchester,
along the Hudson River as well as Connecticut and parts of New Jersey.
Like refugees everywhere, they eked out a difficult and precarious living,
which is their usual fate. This list of self-imposed exiles is far from
complete. It is divided between officers who served in the American army,
both militia and continental, mostly the latter, and citizens, mostly property
owners. It is a list of honor which their decedents might well be proud
of. It is composed of the better known American Patriot families of New
York and vicinity. If they had remained in New York City, many of them
might have suffered a lingering death in the infamous British prisons there.
This list of early American Patriots is far more historic than any society
list 100 years later, such as the Four Hundred or the Social Register.
Much of this information comes from Refugees From Long Island, by F. C. Mather, in which he has a chapter on some of the refugees from New York City.
It is difficult to explain why historians have overlooked writing about these 6,000 Patriot exiles who, for seven long, harrowing years, suffered hardships and privations. Strangely enough, there are at least a half dozen well documented books on the history of Loyalists in New York City, including those from Connecticut and New Jersey, and several books including the Loyalists throughout the United States.
There is practically no available data for students or historians regarding the names of these Patriot exiles. It is to be hoped, however, that some dedicated historian might, by intensive study and research, be able to compile a more complete list. There were no Patriot militia within the boundaries of what is New York City or in lower Westchester, Queens, Richmond, Kings, and parts of Suffolk County and nearby New Jersey from the time of the British occupation until the end of the war.
Bronx County was then a part of Westchester. The lower part of Westchester was under British control during most of the war as far north as Tarrytown. It is interesting to note that, at the beginning of the war, Albany was the biggest county of the stale in population, followed by Dutchess, New York, Westchester, Suffolk, and Queens, all of which had about the same number of inhabitants. Kings, Richmond, Orange, Ulster, and Tryon Counties were considerably smaller.
well known American families were generally favorably disposed towards
the British while they were in command of New York City and vicinity. Actually
nearly all of them signed the pledge of allegiance to King George, both
for social interests and in order to preserve their properties and business
Amiels, Ardens, Apthorpes, Barclay's, Brevorts,Buchanans, Cortelyous, Delanos,
Dashs, Downes, Duncans, Edgars, Fowlers, Crims, Kissams, Delorests, Deshrosses,
Lispenards, Cerards, Lows, Lorrilards, Lydigs, Marstons, Millers, Moores,
Murrays, Nathans, Nichols, Rhinel inders, Roomes, Ruggles, Slidells, Stewarts,
Stuyvesants, Wadells, Waltuns, Winthrops, Weatherheads, Rapeljes, and Walter
Franklin, a Quaker, father-in- law of DeWitt Clinton; Baches, Cuylers,
Wilkins, Clarks, Gregs, and Griffiths.
Among these were quite a few who were neutral. There were also many small merchants and storekeepers, particularly those engaged in trade with England, and a number of wage earners and others, for family and various reasons, who preferred not to take sides openly and did not want to fight for either side.
The following were ardent Loyalists and prominent office-holders under the British government in N.Y. during the war. Most of them fled to Canada or back to England before the return of Washington's, victorious army into New York City Antils, Axtells, Bayards, Bellopps, Coldens, Crugers, DeLanceys, Days, Elliots, Ellisons, Fannings, Folliots, Hechts, Hendrickses, Horsmaudens, Jaunceys, Philip John Livingston, Lloyds, Ludlows, Pells, Philipses, MeAdams, Sherbrooks, Wallaces,, Watts, Whites, W ickhams Augustus Van Cortlandt, Roger Morris, Beverly Robinson, William Franklin (the son of Benjamin Franklin), DePeysters, Jones (the historian), and others who held office under the Crown, and most of the Anglican ministers: also, Myles Cooper, president of King's College
Incomplete List of Several Hundred Patriot Refugee Property Owners, from New York City and Vicinity During Occupation By the British Army from 1776 to November 25, l783 (No More Than Two From Each Family)
Benson, Judge Robert
Curtenius, Rev. Authoreus
Gilbert, Sr. William
Harrison, Richard H.
Hobart, John Sloss
Honeywell, Israel, Jr.
Jay, Sir James
Leaker, John, Jr.
Le Foy, Thomas
Le Rue, Samuel
Morris, Lewis Gouveneur
Remsen, Henry A.
Roosevelt, Claeo Martenzon
Roosevelt, Isaac A.
Smith, Justus B.
Van Cortlandt, Pierre
Van Der Vort, Peter
Van Dyke, Francis
Van Horne, Augustus
Van Varek, (Varrick) James
Van Voorbees, Jacob
Van Zandt, Jacobus
A Fairly Complete List of Several Hundred American Patriot Officers, Mostly Continental, Who Were Refugees from Their Homes in New York City and Vicinity During Occupation by the British Army from 1776 to November 25, 1783.
|Abeel, James, Capt. Lasher's
Addoms, Jonas, Lt., 2nd. Art
Alling, Stephen, Lt., 2nd Art
Alner, James, Major, Malcom's
Aroson, Aaron, Capt., 1st, N.Y.
Armstrong, Edward, Lt., Malcolm’s
Ashton, Joseph, Capt., 2nd Art.
Anspack, Lt., 2nd Art.
Bagley, Josium, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Baldwin, Bezekiah, Capt., 2nd.Regt.
Baneker, John, Capt.
Barnes, John, Capt., N.Y. Rangers
Baumann, Sebastian, Col., 2nd Art.
Beekman, Theophilitis, Capt., Lasher's
Beekman, Thomas, Lt., 2nd Dragoons
Beekman, Tjerek, Lt., 2nd. N.Y.
Brasher, Ephraim, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Bicker, Henry, Col., Militia
Bleecker, Anthony, Maj.
Bleeker, Leonard, Capt., 1st. N.Y.
Bliss, Thomas, Capt., 2nd. Art.
Brogdon, John, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Benson, Robert, Lt. Col., Aide
Bowen, Prentice, Capt., 4th
Bradhurst, Samuel, Capt.
Brasher, Abraham, Lt., 1st .N.Y.
Brewster, Caleb, Capt., 2nd Art
Broome, John, Lt. Col.
Broome, Samuel, Capt.
Brooks, David, Lt.
Bull, William, Capt., Spencer's
Burnett, Robert, Jr., 2nd Lt.,2nd. Art.
Bydanek, Petrtis, Lt., Militia.
Campbell, Donald, Col., Quartermaster
Campbell, John, Lt.
Cheeseman, Jacob, Capt. (Killed at Quebec)
Clarkson, Mathew, Major
Codwise, George, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
Codwise, Christopher, Lt., 2nd N.Y.
Connelly, Michael, Lt., Paymaster
Copp, Belton A., Jr., Capt., 1st N.Y.
Copp, John, Capt.
Crimshire, John D., Lt., Paymaster
Curtenius, Peter T., Col., Aud. Gen.
Dennis, Patt. Capt.
Dickson, Charles, Capt.
Drake, Samuel, Lt. Col. (Westchester)
Duneomb, Edward, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
Doughty, John, Capt., 2nd Art.
Drake, Joshua, Lt., Malcom's
Dowe, Alexander, Lt., Malcom's
Duryea, Direk, Capt., 1st Regt. N.Y.
Elliott, John, Surgeon
Eliott, John, Jr., Lt.
Fairliec, James, Lt., 2nd N.Y.
Fenno, Ephraim, Capt., 2nd.N.Y.
Finch, Andrewy, Capt., 1st N.Y.
Fish, Nicholas, Major, 2nd.N.Y.
Fondy, John, Ensign, 1st N.Y.
Fowler, Thedosius, Capt., 2nd N.Y.
French, Abner, Capt., 1st. N.Y.
Francis, Samuel, Capt.
Furman, John, Lt., 1st N.Y.
Gano, Daniel, Capt.. 2nd Art.
Gano,John J., Chaplain
Gates, Horatio, Maj. Gen.
Gildersleve, Finch, Lt., Spener’s Art.
Giles, Aquila, Major, Aide
Gilliland, William, Lt., 1st N.Y.
Giles, James, Lt., 2nd Art.
Glenny, William, Lt.
Graham, John, Major, Ist N.Y.
Graham, Charles, Lt., 2nd. N.Y.
Gilliland, James, Capt., Spencer’s
Gregge, James, Capt.
Green, John, Capt., Navy
Guion, Isaac, Capt., 2nd Art.
Hallett, Jonah, Lt., Malcolm's
Hallett, Jonathan, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
Hamilton, Alexander, Lt., Col. Aide
Hanson, George, Capt.
Harper, Joseph, 2nd. N.Y.
Harvey, Elvsha, Lt.
Hazard, Samuel, Lt., 2nd Dragoons
Henry, Nathaniel, Lt., Ist N.Y.
Herring, Benjamin, Lt., Ist N.Y.
Hicks, Benjamin, Capt., 1st N.Y.
Hughes, James H., Lt. Col.
Hughes, Timothy, Lt., 1st N.Y.
Hunter, Robert, Lt., Malcolm's
Jackson, Daniel, Lt.
Janeway, George, Capt., Militia
Jansen, Cornelius, Capt., 2nd Regt.
Jay, John, Lt. Col.
Johnson, John, Lt., Ist N.Y.
Johnson, Samuel, Lt.
Johnson, William, Capt., Art.
Keese, John, Capt., Quartermaster
Ketlehost, Westchynant, Capt., Ist Regt.
Lamb, John, Brig. Gen. 2nd.
Lasher, John, Col.
Lawrence, Daniel, Capt.
Lawrence, John, Judge Advo. Gen.
Lawrence, Jonathan Capt., Malcolm's,
Lawrence, Oliver, Lt.
Leaycraft, George, Lt.
Leaycraft, William, Lt., 2nd Art.
Ledyward, Benjamin, Major, 1st N.Y.
Ledyward, Isaac, Surgeon
Leonard, Westchilliam, Capt.
|Lewis, Morgan, Col., Quartermaster
Lewis, Samuel, Lt., Ist. N.Y.
Livingston, Robert C., Col.
Livingston, Bruckholst, lst., Col. Aide
Livingston, Robert H., Lt., 2nd .Regt.
Livingston, William S., Lt., Col. Aide
Lott, Abraham P., Col., Aud. Gen.
Machin, Thomas, Capt., 2nd .Art.
Magee, Peter, Lt., Ist. N.Y.
Malcolm, John, Lt., Malcolm's
Malcolm, William, Col., Malcolm's
Marshall, Elihu, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
MeCoed, Stephen, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
Maxwell, Anthony, Lt., Spenees
Merrill, Joseph, Ensign, 1st.
Middleburger, Oliver, Lt.
Moodie, Andrew, Capt., 2nd Art.
Morreel, Thomas, Capt.
Morriss, Lewis R., Lt., 2nd. N.Y.
Morris, Lewis, Brig. Gen.,Militia
Morris, Lewis, Jr., Maj, Aide
Morris, William Walton, Lt., 2nd Art.
Mott, Greshon, Capt., 2nd Art.
Mc Dougall, Alexander, Maj.Gen., Continental Army
Mc Dougall, John, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Mc Dougall, Stephen, Major,
Mundy, William, Lt., 2nd N.Y.
Mc Knight, Charles, Surgeon
Nesier, Abraham, Lt.
Nestel, Peter, Capt., 2nd. Art.
Neely, Abraham, Capt., Spences
Newkirk, W'illiam, Capt.
Nicholson, James, Capt., Navy
Oakley, Elyth, Lt., Ist. N.Y.
Oliver, Richard, Lt., Malcolm's
Parsons, Charles, Capt., 1st N.Y.
Pell, Samuel T., Capt., 2nd N.Y.
Phoenix, Daniel, Capt.
Pintard, John, Lt.
Platt, Richarrl, Major
Post, Anthony, Capt., 2nd. Art.
Post, John, Commissary
Randell, Thomas, Capt. N.Y.
Reed, Jacob, Capt., 2nd Art.
Regnier, Pierre, Lt. Col., 2nd Art.
Remsen, Abraham, Capt., Militia
Remsen, Henry, Col., Militia
Remsen, William, Capt.
Ricker, Abraham, Militia
Rogers, Rev. John, Chaplain
Roosevelt, Nicholas, Major
Rutgers, Henry, Lt. Col.
Ryckman, Wilhelmees, Jr., Lt.,1st N.Y.
Sackett, Samuel, Capt., Militia
Sands, Comfort, Adj. Gen.
Sands, James, Capt., Militia
Scott, John Morin, Brig. Gen.
Sears, Isaac, Capt., Malcolm's
Shaw, John, Lt., 2nd. Art.
Smith, Isaac, Lt., 2nd. Art.
Smith, Robert, Capt. Aide
Smith, William Stephene, Lt. Col., Aide
Snow, Ephriam, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Stagg, John Jr., Lt., Malcolm's
Steel, Stephen, Capt.
Steele, John, Capt., Malcolm's
Sterling, Alexander, Maj. Gen.
Standford,John, Capt., Spence's
Steinmetz, Frederick, Lt.
Stewart, William, Militia
Stewart, James, Capt., Malcolm's
Sotenburgh, John, Lt.
Stout, John, Lt., Militia
Stockholm, Andrew, Lt. Col.
Stockton, Benjamin, Lt., Surgeon
Stutenburgh, Peter, Capt.
Scudder, William, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Swartwout, Berradus, Lt.
Sweet, Coleb, Surgeon, 1st.
Sytez, George, Capt., 1st. N.Y.
Tappan, Peter, Lt., 2nd. N.Y.
Tapp, William, Quartermaster
Taylor, Andrew, Lt.
Tiebout, Henry, Capt., Ist. N.Y.
Thorne, Samuel, Lt., ist. N.Y.
Thompson, Andrew, Lt.,Spences
Throup, Robert, Lt. Col., Aide
Throop, J. R., Lt., 2nd. Art.
Troop, Robert, Lt.
Tyler, Nathaniel, Capt.
Van Cortlandt, Philip, Col.,2nd. N.Y.
Van Duersen, Abraham, Capt.
Van Dyke, Abraham, Capt., Lasher's
Van Dyke, Cornelius, Lt. Col.,1st. N.Y.
Van Wagenrn, Garret, Lt., 1st. N.Y.
Van Wagenen, Tonio, Lt., 2nd.N.Y.
Van Wyck, Abraham, Capt.,1st. N.Y.
Van Zandt, Peter, Major
Van Zandt, Wyner, Capt.
Varick, Richard, Lt. Col., Aide
Walker, Benjamin, Lt. Col.
Warner, Thomas, Lt.
White, John, Lt.
White, Andrew, Lt.
Wileock, William, Capt.
Wiley, John, Major
Willett, Marinus, Col., 3rd N.Y.
Wright, Jacob, Capt., 2nd. N.Y.
numbers of Patriot refugees, including most of the Long Island militia,
crossed over to Connecticut in 129 ships, 48 of which were commanded by
Long Lsland refugees. Most of them became active privateers. Many of the
Long Island refugees enlisted in the 3rd and 4th N.Y. Continental Regiments,
and quite a few served an of ficers throughout the war. Among the militia
officers were: Col. Jacob Blackwrll, Col. William Floyd, Col. David Mulford,
Col. Josiah Smith, Col. John Young, Maj. Jesse Brooks, Maj. Richard Thorne,
Capt. Ephraim Bayles, Capt. Benjamin Birdsell, Capt. William Boerum, Capt.
Benjamin Conkling, Capt. David Fordham, Capt. John Foster, Capt. Joseph,
Capt. Robert Harris, Capt. Selab Strong, Capt. John Weeks, Capt. Thomas
Wickham, Lt. Benjamin Cor, Lt. Thomas Dering, Lt. David Gilston, Lt. William
Havens, Lt. Barnett Miller, Lt. Andrew Onderdonk, Lt. Henry Scudder, and
Lt. Thomas Treadwell.
Among the Long Island Patriot refugees who went to Connecticut were numerous adult male members from the following families who must have increased and multiplied in almost 200 years and spread throughout the nation. They are listed numerically: Conkling 40, Reeves 20, Rogers 20, Topping 20, Halsey 15, Halleek 13, King12, Sayre 12, Bayley 10, Corwin 10, Gardiner 10, Gilderslreve 10, Griffing10, Howells 10, Hedges 10, Terry 8, Gelston 7, and Sanford
Those readers who had ancestors living in Long Island during the Revolution and are interested in obtaining detailed information can find a vast amount of documented facts in The Refugees of 1776 from Long Island To Connecticut, by F. G. Mather, published in N.Y. in 1909. This excellent book of reference is available in the New York Public Library (Astor) and the New York Historical Society as well as most Local Long Island History Libraries. There is also a book by Henry Onderdonk regarding Revolutionary incidents in Queens, Kings, and Suffolk Counties which is interesting historic reading.
The departure of the Patriot families to Connecticut, particularly from Kings and Queens Counties which were even Loyalist before the war, turned these counties into loyalist strongholds. Suffolk County, however, was, from the beginning and remained to the end of the war, on the Patriot side. A small British garrison was maintained at Southhampton, but was withdrawn before the end of the war.
At the end of the war, Lt. Colonel Fish was ordered by Governor George Clinton to convey a message to General Haldimand, governor of Canada, requesting the withdrawal of the British troops from certain frontier posts. The message was delivered, but the British general was reluctant to act without orders from the War Office in London.
L.t .Col. Nicholas Fish New York 19th March 1784
You will immediately proceed to Canada and deliver the inclosed letter
to General Haldimand, Commander in Chief of the British Troops in that
You will confer with him on the subject matter of that letter a copy of which is inclosed and endeavor to find the exact time when the British Troops shall evacuate the Posts within this State, which they now hold, and make such arrangements with him for the transaction of that business and our taking possession, as may tend to promote the mutual convenience and interest of both parties.
If however you shall find, that for want of the necessary instructions from his Court, or for any other reason, General Haldimand is unwilling or refuses to find the exact time of delivery of the post above mentioned, you will at least endeavor to make such arrangements with him that whenever the British Troops do evacuate those posts timely notice will be given for the Troops of the State to receive them at the dispatch.
In the course of your conference it may not be amiss to inform General Haldimand of the amicable manner in which matters were conducted in the evacuation of this place, and of the good consequences which followed from it. If he should make any inquiries with respect to inhabitants who may be settled in the vicinity of the Garrisons to be evacuated, you may in general terms assure him of the disposition of the State to do every thing that may tend to promote harmony between both parties, and that you have no doubt the State will not only abide strictly by the terms of the Treaty but where particular eases require it, and where the honor and safety of the State, will admit they will ever extend their indulgences beyond them.
Impressed as you must be with the necessity of my being early acquainted with the result of your mission I have no doubt you will use all the dispatch in your power to accomplish the business. Wishing you therefore a pleasant journey,
I am Sir
Your most Obedient Servant.
To Col. Fish
Instructions from His Excellency, Gov. Clinton relative to the negotiations for the delivery of the western posts-March 19th, 1784.